Main article: Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. It allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different perspectives (using and the scenario manager). It has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for Applications, allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical methods, for example, for solving differential equations of mathematical physics, and then reporting the results back to the spreadsheet. It also has a variety of interactive features allowing user interfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from the user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so-called application, or decision support system (DSS), via a custom-designed user interface, for example, a stock analyzer, or in general, as a design tool that asks the user questions and provides answers and reports.
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In a more elaborate realization, an Excel application can automatically poll external databases and measuring instruments using an update schedule, analyze the results, make a report or slide show, and e-mail these presentations on a regular basis to a list of participants. Excel was not designed to be used as a database. Main article: The Windows version of Excel supports programming through Microsoft's (VBA), which is a dialect of. Programming with VBA allows spreadsheet manipulation that is awkward or impossible with standard spreadsheet techniques. Programmers may write code directly using the Visual Basic Editor (VBE), which includes a window for writing code, debugging code, and code module organization environment.
The user can implement numerical methods as well as automating tasks such as formatting or data organization in VBA and guide the calculation using any desired intermediate results reported back to the spreadsheet. VBA was removed from Mac Excel 2008, as the developers did not believe that a timely release would allow porting the VBA engine natively to Mac OS X. VBA was restored in the next version, Mac Excel 2011, although the build lacks support for objects, impacting some high level developer tools. A common and easy way to generate VBA code is by using the Recorder. The Macro Recorder records actions of the user and generates VBA code in the form of a macro.
These actions can then be repeated automatically by running the macro. The macros can also be linked to different trigger types like keyboard shortcuts, a command button or a graphic.
The actions in the macro can be executed from these trigger types or from the generic toolbar options. The VBA code of the macro can also be edited in the VBE. Certain features such as loop functions and screen prompt by their own properties, and some graphical display items, cannot be recorded but must be entered into the VBA module directly by the programmer.
Advanced users can employ user prompts to create an interactive program, or react to events such as sheets being loaded or changed. Macro Recorded code may not be compatible with Excel versions. Some code that is used in Excel 2010 cannot be used in Excel 2003.
Making a Macro that changes the cell colours and making changes to other aspects of cells may not be backward compatible. VBA code interacts with the spreadsheet through the Excel Object Model, a vocabulary identifying spreadsheet objects, and a set of supplied functions or methods that enable reading and writing to the spreadsheet and interaction with its users (for example, through custom toolbars or command bars and message boxes). User-created VBA execute these actions and operate like macros generated using the macro recorder, but are more flexible and efficient. History From its first version Excel supported end user programming of macros (automation of repetitive tasks) and user defined functions (extension of Excel's built-in function library).
In early versions of Excel these programs were written in a macro language whose statements had formula syntax and resided in the cells of special purpose macro sheets (stored with file extension.XLM in Windows.) XLM was the default macro language for Excel through Excel 4.0. Beginning with version 5.0 Excel recorded macros in VBA by default but with version 5.0 XLM recording was still allowed as an option. After version 5.0 that option was discontinued.
All versions of Excel, including Excel 2010 are capable of running an XLM macro, though Microsoft discourages their use. Charts Excel supports,, or generated from specified groups of cells. The generated graphic component can either be embedded within the current sheet, or added as a separate object. These displays are dynamically updated if the content of cells change. For example, suppose that the important design requirements are displayed visually; then, in response to a user's change in trial values for parameters, the curves describing the design change shape, and their points of intersection shift, assisting the selection of the best design. Add-ins Additional features are available using. Several are provided with Excel, including: • Analysis ToolPak — Provides data analysis tools for statistical and engineering analysis (includes and ) • Analysis ToolPak VBA — functions for Analysis ToolPak • Euro Currency Tools — Conversion and formatting for euro currency • Solver Add-In — Tools for optimization and equation solving Data storage and communication Number of rows and columns Versions of Excel up to 7.0 had a limitation in the size of their data sets of 16K (2 14 = 000000000♠16 384) rows.
Versions 8.0 through 11.0 could handle 64K (2 16 = 000000000♠65 536) rows and 256 columns (2 8 as label 'IV'). Version 12.0 can handle 1M (2 20 = 600000000♠1 048 576) rows, and 000000000♠16 384 (2 14 as label 'XFD') columns. File formats Excel Spreadsheet.xls, (.xlsx,.xlsm,.xlsb - Excel 2007) application/vnd.ms-excel com.microsoft.excel.xls Developed by Type of format Microsoft Excel up until 2007 version used a proprietary binary file format called Excel Binary File Format (.XLS) as its primary format. Excel 2007 uses as its primary file format, an XML-based format that followed after a previous -based format called 'XML Spreadsheet' ('XMLSS'), first introduced in Excel 2002. Although supporting and encouraging the use of new XML-based formats as replacements, Excel 2007 remained backwards-compatible with the traditional, binary formats.
In addition, most versions of Microsoft Excel can read,,,, and other legacy formats. Support for some older file formats was removed in Excel 2007. The file formats were mainly from DOS-based programs. Binary has created documentation of the Excel format.
Since then Microsoft made the Excel binary format specification available to freely download. XML Spreadsheet.
Main article: The XML Spreadsheet format introduced in Excel 2002 is a simple, based format missing some more advanced features like storage of VBA macros. What Is The Latest Version Of Gta 5. Though the intended file extension for this format is.xml, the program also correctly handles XML files with.xls extension. This feature is widely used by third-party applications (e.g. Query Browser) to offer 'export to Excel' capabilities without implementing binary file format. The following example will be correctly opened by Excel if saved either as Book1.xml or Book1.xls. Name Example Value 123 Current file extensions.
Main article: Microsoft Excel 2007, along with the other products in the suite, introduced new file formats. The first of these (.xlsx) is defined in the (OOXML) specification. Excel 2007 formats Format Extension Description Excel Workbook.xlsx The default Excel 2007 and later workbook format.
In reality a compressed archive with a directory structure of text documents. Functions as the primary replacement for the former binary.xls format, although it does not support Excel macros for security reasons. Excel Macro-enabled Workbook.xlsm As Excel Workbook, but with macro support. Excel Binary Workbook.xlsb As Excel Macro-enabled Workbook, but storing information in binary form rather than XML documents for opening and saving documents more quickly and efficiently. Intended especially for very large documents with tens of thousands of rows, and/or several hundreds of columns. Excel Macro-enabled Template.xltm A template document that forms a basis for actual workbooks, with macro support. The replacement for the old.xlt format.